Protection and airtightness are the characteristics of an underground garage combined with peacetime and wartime. This type of garage that is required to be closed has no natural lighting and needs to consume electrical energy for lighting; there is no green environment, which requires innovative solutions.
The outdoor entrance and exit of the civil air defense project are placed outside the projection range of the upper building, which is the basic requirement of the civil air defense design code. According to this requirement, the entrance and exit cannot have a vertical connection with the upper building, so people are often accustomed to using elevators or stairs that are vertically connected to the upper building instead of using the air-raid outdoor entrance. Even if the outdoor entrance and exit of civil air defense are usually used for personnel entry and exit, the small ground building on the outdoor ground section should be set as an enclosed fire-proof stairwell, which is about 3 meters above the outdoor ground. Such protruding entities will greatly affect the garden landscape of the community. Aesthetics, and easily cause waste of land resources and funds.
The design and construction method of a multifunctional civil air defense underground garage mouth invented by the author of this article will solve the above problems well.
Using this multi-functional design and construction method, the result is a sunken pit-shaped underground small structure that integrates outdoor entrances and exits, ventilation, lighting, and greening. The structure is equipped with an atrium, an anti-virus channel, a closed channel for air defense, a normal ventilation room and a gas collection chamber. The outdoor ground section adopts transparent glass parts, transparent glass water blocking and transparent glass ventilation shutters for natural lighting and ventilation. The transparent glass top cover and the walls and floors below the outdoor ground section adopt reinforced concrete structures, and the walls are installed with normal openings. The air-defense protection airtight door, and transparent fireproof glass is installed behind the airtight door for natural lighting. In order to enhance the natural lighting effect, the area of the protective closed door and the transparent lighting fireproof glass should be as large as possible, and the protective closed door that meets the requirements of civil air defense can be implemented in wartime.
The structure is arranged in the underground garage with several civil air defense protection unit partitions and at the same time the junction of several fire partitions. At the same time, it solves the ventilation and lighting problems of several partitions, forming the outdoor entrance and exit of civil air defense in wartime, and has a comfortable building environment. The structure can be arranged in the garage on the first floor of the basement. If it is arranged in the multi-story garage, it can be shared by multiple floors, which improves the use efficiency of the structure. In the atrium of the structure, cast-in-place reinforced concrete is used to make a permanent staircase or a post-assembled steel structure staircase to realize wartime personnel from underground to the ground floor. The prefabricated steel structure stairs are sealed up in peacetime, and then installed in place during wartime. The prefabricated civil air defense outdoor entrance and exit stairs reduce the atrium area of the structure and are more economical.
White building materials are used on the floor and wall of the atrium of the structure. The white building material improves the natural lighting effect. Green plants are arranged on the wall, floor and outdoor entrance and exit steps of the atrium. Background lighting is set on the floor of the atrium. During the day, indoor personnel can pass through. The transparent daylighting and fireproof glass can see the greenery of the atrium, which brings people a comfortable visual experience; at night, when the background light of the atrium is turned on, the green plants are set off. The indoor personnel can also see the same landscape, and the indoor personnel in the underground garage can perceive the outdoor The wind and rain on the ground eliminate the uncomfortable feeling brought by the closed rooms in the past, making the structure a small piece of residential garden landscape planning. Outdoor personnel can also see the greenery of the building's inner courtyard. The transparent glass top cover is constructed into a wavy transparent glass top cover. The transparent glass top cover is made into a water collection container, and a spray nozzle is set inside the container to form a fountain water scene.
Compared with the prior art, this design and construction method has the following advantages:
1. Under the requirements of existing regulations, natural light and green plant landscapes are introduced into the basement garage that combines peacetime and warfare to eliminate the psychological fear of people in the underground garage, which is of great use value.
2. The structure is compact, with multiple functions such as civil air defense outdoor entrances and exits, usual ventilation shafts, natural lighting, indoor building environment, and garden architectural sketches. It combines civil air defense, fire protection, garden planning, building materials and environmental protection and energy saving technologies. Multi-purpose materials, great economic value.
3. The reproducibility in engineering application is strong. The structure has no fixed shape, length, height, number of layers and position requirements, and it is easy to be integrated into each specific single project.
4. The structures can be integrated into the garden landscape of the residential area in the form of ground architectural sketches. The protruding section of the structure is almost all-glass structure and the height is only about 1.3 meters. The structure protruding from the ground is an addition There is no safety hazard except for the fully enclosed body except the ventilation louvers.
5. As a spare exit for self-rescue fire life in underground garages: an iron hammer is installed near the transparent fireproof glass behind the normally open air-defense airtight door. In an emergency, indoor personnel can use a hammer to break the transparent fireproof glass, permanently along the atrium reinforced concrete Evacuate to the safe outdoor ground on the first floor by a sexual staircase.